Hard Carbon from Wood Wastes via a Gasifier

Converting wood wastes from a gasifier into hard carbon and graphite for battery cathodes

As the world moves towards more sustainable energy sources, researchers are exploring the use of wood waste as a feedstock for producing hard carbon or graphite, which can be used as battery cathodes. In this article, we will explore the process of converting wood waste in a gasifier to hard carbon or graphite, and its potential application in battery technology.


Gasification of Wood Waste

Gasification is a thermochemical process that converts organic materials, such as wood waste, into a gas mixture known as syngas. During the process, the wood waste is heated in the presence of a limited supply of oxygen or air, resulting in the production of volatile compounds, bio-oil, and solid residue, which can be further processed to produce hard carbon or graphite.

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Production of Hard Carbon or Graphite from Gasification

The solid residue from gasification, also known as biochar, can be further processed to produce hard carbon or graphite. Hard carbon is produced by heating biochar at high temperatures in the presence of an inert gas, while graphite is produced by heating hard carbon at even higher temperatures in the presence of a catalyst.


Use of Hard Carbon or Graphite in Battery Cathodes

Recent studies have shown that hard carbon and graphite produced from wood waste can be used as low-cost and sustainable alternatives to traditional battery cathode materials, such as lithium cobalt oxide. Hard carbon has high energy density, good thermal stability, and excellent electrochemical performance, while graphite has high conductivity and excellent cycle stability. Moreover, the use of wood waste as a feedstock for producing hard carbon and graphite presents an opportunity to reduce carbon emissions and move towards more sustainable energy sources.

Conclusion

Gasification of wood waste can produce solid residue that can be further processed to produce hard carbon or graphite, which can be used as battery cathode materials. The use of wood waste as a feedstock for producing hard carbon and graphite presents a sustainable and low-cost alternative to traditional battery cathode materials. Further research is needed to optimize the production process and to explore the potential applications of hard carbon and graphite in battery technology.


References

Zhang, X., Qi, X., Yang, H., Guo, H., & Dai, L. (2019). Hard Carbon Derived from Wood Waste as a High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(9), 8828-8835. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b00420

Cheng, L., Ma, Y., Zhang, H., & Zhang, L. (2020). Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Graphite Anode Materials from Wood Waste. ACS Omega, 5(37), 23698-23705. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.0c03070

Kumar, P., Kumar, M., & Sharma, Y. C. (2021). Solid Residue from Gasification of Biomass: A Review on Its Conversion to Value-Added Products. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 12, 4383-4401. doi: 10.1007/s12649-020-01189-9

Tao, J., Zhou, Y., Wang, Z., Li, Y., & Song, H. (2022). A Review of Hard Carbon Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 125, 115-129. doi: 10.1016/j.jmst.2021.09.050

Lu, L., Wang, X., Li, J., & Zhang, H. (2021). Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Review of Recent Progress and Future Perspectives. Advanced Materials, 33(28), e2007457. doi: 10.1002/adma.202007457

Jiang, X., Yang, Z., Liu, Z., Yang, C., & Qiao, Y. (2018). Biomass-Derived Hard Carbons with Hierarchical Porous Structures for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries. Journal of Power Sources, 401, 17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.08.016

Wang, L., Chen, S., Wang, X., Xu, B., & Gao, X. (2020). Synthesis of Hard Carbon Anodes from Waste Biomass and Their Electrochemical Performance in Lithium Ion Batteries. Journal of Energy Chemistry, 42, 77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jechem.2019.10.008

Liu, Y., Li, X., & Wang, Y. (2021). Sustainable Preparation of Hard Carbon from Biomass for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 9(17), 6002-6010. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c08949

Kim, S., Kim, H., Jeon, S., & Choi, J. (2021). High Performance Graphite Anode Materials Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 4(7), 6741-6750. doi: 10.1021/acsaem.1c00811

Chen, S., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Xu, B., & Gao, X. (2019). Facile Synthesis of Graphite Anodes from Pine Sawdust for Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(16), 13944-13951. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b02737


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