Electrolyte Engineering for Sodium Metal Batteries

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Review Recent Development of Electrolyte Engineering for Sodium Metal Batteries Yingying Ji 1, Jiabao Li 2 and Jinliang Li 1,* Citation: Ji, Y.; Li, J.; Li, J. Recent Development of Electrolyte Engineering for Sodium Metal Batteries. Batteries 2022, 8, 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries 8100157 Academic Editor: Claudio Gerbaldi Received: 8 September 2022 Accepted: 30 September 2022 Published: 4 October 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu‐ tral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institu‐ tional affiliations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Li‐ censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and con‐ ditions of the Creative Commons At‐ tribution (CC BY) license (https://cre‐ ativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). 1 Siyuan Laboratory, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Vacuum Coating Technologies and New Energy Materials, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Vacuum Coating Technologies and New Materials, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China 2 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, 180 Si‐Wang‐Ting Road, Yangzhou 225002, China * Correspondence: lijinliang@email.jnu.edu.cn Abstract: Intermittent renewable energy requires a powerful energy storage system to smoothen the relationship between power generation and power consumption. Due to the rapidly rising price of Li resources, the development of Li‐ion batteries (LIBs) has been severely limited. Therefore, de‐ veloping high-efficiency and low‐cost Na‐ion batteries has become an alternative to energy storage systems. The high potential plateau of most anode materials urges the exploration of the ultimate anode, the Na metal anode. However, three big dilemmas regarding Na metal anodes, including the formation of Na dendrites, the formation of dead Na, and the continuous appearance of bare Na lead to the degradation of the performance of Na metal batteries (NMBs). In this review, we mainly summarize the recent progress to address these dilemmas for NMBs by electrolyte optimization. We firstly discuss the liquid electrolyte progresses to improve the Na metal anode’s electrochemical performance by solvent chemistry, salt chemistry, and additive. In addition, considering the ulti‐ mate goal of NMBs is solid‐state batteries, we also discuss the recent progress of polymer electro‐ lytes and all‐solid‐state electrolytes for Na metal anodes and summarize the enhancement of Na‐ ion transport mechanisms and interface engineering mechanisms of different solid‐state electro‐ lytes. Furthermore, the critical challenges and new perspectives of NMBs using electrolyte optimi‐ zation are also emphasized. We believe that our review will provide insight to conduct more com‐ prehensive and effective electrolyte engineering for high‐performance NMBs. Keywords: Na metal anode; liquid electrolyte; polymer electrolyte; all‐solid‐state electrolyte 1. Introduction Recently, energy shortage has become a major challenge faced by today’s society. The development of alternative renewable energy including wind energy and solar en‐ ergy has become the current mainstream [1‐3]. However, most of the alternative renewa‐ ble energy appears as intermittent energy due to natural conditions, resulting in efficient energy storage systems being required to store and integrate this energy into the grid [4‐ 7]. The lithium (Li) ion battery (LIB) has become the choice of the current energy storage system due to its high efficiency and stability [8‐10]. However, with the rapid expansion of the energy storage market, the price of Li resources has also risen rapidly, indicating that LIBs will not be able to meet the demand for large‐scale electrical energy storage ap‐ plications in the future [11‐14]. Therefore, exploring low‐cost electrochemical energy stor‐ age systems has become the goal of future grid energy storage. Due to the similar operating principle to LIB and low‐cost sodium (Na) resource, the Na ion battery (NIB) also receives lots of attention and is supposed to be the next genera‐ tion low‐cost battery for the large‐scale energy storage system [15‐17]. However, the NIBs practical applications are severely limited by the development of anode materials because Batteries 2022, 8, 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100157 www.mdpi.com/journal/batteries

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