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Text from PDF Page: 001 energies Review Recycling of Lithium Batteries—A Review Xiaowei Duan 1 , Wenkun Zhu 2,*, Zhongkui Ruan 1, Min Xie 3,* , Juan Chen 4 and Xiaohan Ren 1,* Citation: Duan, X.; Zhu, W.; Ruan, Z.; Xie, M.; Chen, J.; Ren, X. Recycling of Lithium Batteries—A Review. Energies2022,15,1611. https:// doi.org/10.3390/en15051611 Academic Editors: Salvador Rodríguez-Bolívar and Juan A. López-Villanueva Received: 30 November 2021 Accepted: 18 February 2022 Published: 22 February 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). 1 2 3 4 * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (W.Z.); email@example.com (M.X.); firstname.lastname@example.org (X.R.) Abstract: With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry in recent years, the use of lithium batteries is growing rapidly. From 2015 to 2040, the production of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles could reach 0.33 to 4 million tons. It is predicted that a total of 21 million end-of-life lithium battery packs will be generated between 2015 and 2040. Spent lithium batteries can cause pollution to the soil and seriously threaten the safety and property of people. They contain valuable metals, such as cobalt and lithium, which are nonrenewable resources, and their recycling and treatment have important economic, strategic, and environmental benefits. Estimations show that the weight of spent electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries will reach 500,000 tons in 2020. Methods for safely and effectively recycling lithium batteries to ensure they provide a boost to economic development have been widely investigated. This paper summarizes the recycling technologies for lithium batteries discussed in recent years, such as pyrometallurgy, acid leaching, solvent extraction, electrochemical methods, chlorination technology, ammoniation technology, and combined recycling, and presents some views on the future research direction of lithium batteries. Keywords: spent cathode material; lithium-ion battery; recycling; pyrometallurgy; hydrometallurgy; biohydrometallurgy 1. Introduction Since the first industrial revolution, the use of fossil fuels has emitted a large number of pollutants, causing the greenhouse effect and climate change, which has become a great challenge for mankind. Against this backdrop, the zero-emission and non-polluting nature of electric vehicles has made them the primary choice for all countries. Global electric vehicle sales have grown exponentially over the past decade, with around 5.1 million electric vehicles on the road worldwide in 2018. China, the USA, and Europe are currently the world’s largest consumers of powered vehicles. The International Energy Agency estimates that the global sales of electric vehicles will reach 4 million in 2020 and 245 million in 2030 on the basis of current and expected policies, with corresponding annual sales growth of approximately 41% and a stock value of US$13 billion and US$130 billion . The rapid development of powered vehicles has led to a rapid increase in the con- sumption of batteries. As one of the typical representatives of new energy power batteries, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used in energy storage and electric vehicles due to their long cycle life, high specific energy, small self-discharge effect, small size, high working voltage, no memory effect, wide applicable temperature range, and green environ- mental protection. Several common LIBs (according to cathode material) are LiCoO2 (LCO), LiMnO2 (LMO), LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM), and LiFePO4 (LFP), and their composition and structure are shown in Figure 1 (% in the figure refers to wt%). From 2015 to 2040, the production of LIBs for electric vehicles could reach 0.33 to 4 million tons , which would raise concerns for the resource supply chain. It is predicted Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China; email@example.com (X.D.); firstname.lastname@example.org (Z.R.) School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China HE National Engineering Research Center-Power Equipment Company Ltd., Harbin 150028, China School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China; email@example.com Energies 2022, 15, 1611. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051611 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/energies
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