Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from Auto Catalysts

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materials Article Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from Spent Automotive Catalysts Using Lithium Salts and Hydrochloric Acid Shunsuke Kuzuhara 1, Mina Ota 1,† and Ryo Kasuya 2,* 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Citation: Kuzuhara,S.;Ota,M.; Kasuya, R. Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from Spent Automotive Catalysts Using Lithium Salts and Hydrochloric Acid. Materials2021,14,6843. https:// doi.org/10.3390/ma14226843 Academic Editor: Olga Rodríguez Largo Received: 20 October 2021 Accepted: 10 November 2021 Published: 12 November 2021 1 2 * Correspondence: ryo-kasuya@aist.go.jp; Tel.: +81-52-736-7595 † Present address: Department of Metallurgy, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Miyagi, Japan. Abstract: The recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from waste materials involves dissolving the waste in an aqueous solution. However, since PGMs are precious metals, their dissolution requires strong oxidizing agents such as chlorine gas and aqua regia. In this study, we aimed to recover PGMs via the calcination of spent automotive catalysts (autocatalysts) with Li salts based on the concept of “spent autocatalyst + waste lithium-ion batteries” and leaching with only HCl. The results suggest that, when Li2CO3 was used, the Pt content was fully leached, while 94.9% and 97.5% of Rh and Pd, respectively, were leached using HCl addition. Even when LiF, which is a decomposition product of the electrolytic solution (LiPF6), was used as the Li salt model, the PGM leaching rate did not significantly change. In addition, we studied the immobilization of fluorine on cordierite (2MgO·2Al2O3·5SiO2), which is a matrix component of autocatalysts. Through the calcination of LiF in the presence of cordierite, we found that cordierite thermally decomposed, and fluorine was immobilized as MgF2. Keywords: leaching; PGMs; LIBs; recycling; fluorine immobilization 1. Introduction Platinum group metals (PGMs), which include Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os, are used in various fields, including catalysis. PGMs are commonly employed in catalysts for the treatment of automobile exhaust gases. In 2020, the gross demand recorded for PGMs was 228.0 tons of Pt, 311.3 tons of Pd, and 31.7 tons for Rh [1]. However, only 153.8, 191.6, and 18.9 tons of Pt, Pd, and Rh, respectively, were produced from mines; thus, the demand was not completely met. According to reports [1,2], the demand for PGMs has been met through mining and recycling for more than a decade. Since PGMs are rare and expensive elements, their recovery and recycling from waste materials, including automotive catalysts (autocatalysts), have received growing attention. The International Energy Association (IEA) provided a forecast for electric vehicles (EVs) and assessed the impact that the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) will have on this market [3]. In this context, the term EV refers to both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). According to the Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS), which presumes that policies announced thus far will be realized, the number of EVs worldwide will increase from 8.1 million recorded in 2019 to 140 million by 2030 (an increase of ~30% annually). A total of 7.2 million EVs, which were passenger light-duty vehicles (PLDVs), existed in 2019, and this figure is expected to reach 43 and 119 million by 2025 and 2030, respectively. Even in the “bright” future predicted by the STEPS, EVs will only account for approxi- mately 10% of the PLDVs. Automobiles that are not BEVs or fuel-cell vehicles are equipped National Institute of Technology, Sendai College, 48 Nodayama, Medeshima-Shiote, Natori 981-1239, Miyagi, Japan; kuzuhara@sendai-nct.ac.jp (S.K.); ota.mina.p2@dc.tohoku.ac.jp (M.O.) Global Zero Emission Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569, Ibaraki, Japan Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Materials 2021, 14, 6843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226843 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/materials

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