high-performance dendrite-free seawater-based batteries

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high-performance dendrite-free seawater-based batteries ( high-performance-dendrite-free-seawater-based-batteries )

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ARTICLE https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20334-6 OPEN Stable, high-performance, dendrite-free, seawater-based aqueous batteries Huajun Tian1, Zhao Li1, Guangxia Feng2, Zhenzhong Yang3, David Fox1,4, Maoyu Wang5, Hua Zhou 6, Lei Zhai1,4, Akihiro Kushima 1,7,8, Yingge Du 3, Zhenxing Feng 5✉, Xiaonan Shan2✉ & Yang Yang 1,7,9✉ Metal anode instability, including dendrite growth, metal corrosion, and hetero-ions inter- ference, occurring at the electrolyte/electrode interface of aqueous batteries, are among the most critical issues hindering their widespread use in energy storage. Herein, a universal strategy is proposed to overcome the anode instability issues by rationally designing alloyed materials, using Zn-M alloys as model systems (M = Mn and other transition metals). An in- situ optical visualization coupled with finite element analysis is utilized to mimic actual electrochemical environments analogous to the actual aqueous batteries and analyze the complex electrochemical behaviors. The Zn-Mn alloy anodes achieved stability over thou- sands of cycles even under harsh electrochemical conditions, including testing in seawater- based aqueous electrolytes and using a high current density of 80 mA cm−2. The proposed design strategy and the in-situ visualization protocol for the observation of dendrite growth set up a new milestone in developing durable electrodes for aqueous batteries and beyond. 1 NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA. 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, W306, Engineering Building 2, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA. 3 Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA. 4 Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA. 5 School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. 6 X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA. 7 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA. 8 Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA. 9 Energy Conversion and Propulsion Cluster, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA. ✉email: zhenxing.feng@oregonstate.edu; xshan@central.uh.edu; Yang.Yang@ucf.edu NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | (2021)12:237 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20334-6 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications 1 1234567890():,;

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Product and Development Focus for Salgenx

Redox Flow Battery Technology: With the advent of the new USA tax credits for producing and selling batteries ($35/kW) we are focussing on a simple flow battery using shipping containers as the modular electrolyte storage units with tax credits up to $140,000 per system.

Our main focus is on the salt battery. This battery can be used for both thermal and electrical storage applications.

We call it the Cogeneration Battery or Cogen Battery.

One project is converting salt (brine) based water conditioners to simultaneously produce power.

In addition, there are many opportunities to extract Lithium from brine (salt lakes, groundwater, and producer water).

Salt water or brine are huge sources for lithium. Most of the worlds lithium is acquired from a brine source. It's even in seawater in a low concentration. Brine is also a byproduct of huge powerplants, which can now use that as an electrolyte and a huge flow battery (which allows storage at the source).

We welcome any business and equipment inquiries, as well as licensing our flow battery manufacturing.

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