Na Ion Batteries Used at Low Temperatures

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nanomaterials Review Recent Progress and Perspective: Na Ion Batteries Used at Low Temperatures Peiyuan Li 1 , Naiqi Hu 2, Jiayao Wang 2, Shuchan Wang 2 and Wenwen Deng 2,* 1 2 * Correspondence: dengwenwen@usts.edu.cn Abstract: With the rapid development of electric power, lithium materials, as a rare metal material, will be used up in 50 years. Sodium, in the same main group as lithium in the periodic table, is abundant in earth’s surface. However, in the study of sodium-ion batteries, there are still problems with their low-temperature performance. Its influencing factors mainly include three parts: cathode material, anode material, and electrolyte. In the cathode, there are Prussian blue and Prussian blue analogues, layered oxides, and polyanionic-type cathodes in four parts, as this paper discusses. How- ever, in the anode, there is hard carbon, amorphous selenium, metal selenides, and the NaTi2(PO4)3 anode. Then, we divide the electrolyte into four parts: organic electrolytes; ionic liquid electrolytes; aqueous electrolytes; and solid-state electrolytes. Here, we aim to find electrode materials with a high specific capacity of charge and discharge at lower temperatures. Meanwhile, high-electrical-potential cathode materials and low-potential anode materials are also found. Furthermore, their stability in air and performance degradation in full cells and half-cells are analyzed. As for the electrolyte, despite the aspects mentioned above, its electrical conductivity in low temperatures is also reported. Keywords: sodium-ion battery; low temperature; all climate; conductivity 1. Introduction Nowadays, with the rapid development of mobile electronic devices and increasing energy consumption, people’s demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is expanding [1]. However, judging from the current scarcity of lithium resources, both in terms of cost and distribution, LIBs are not the best choice in future market. Na has chemical properties which are similar to lithium [2], so that sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have high expectations as an alternative to LIBs [3]. Compared with LIBs, SIBs have several advantages. Sodium resources are abundant, and the price is relatively low. They also have the advantages of the low-concentration electrolyte which can be taken to reduce costs [4]. Compared with the same concentration of the lithium-ion electrolyte, the transfer efficiency of sodium ions in the ion electrolyte is 20% higher than that of lithium ions [5]. On the other hand, the collector of lithium-ion batteries is mostly copper foil, as lithium materials are more likely to interact with aluminum metal [6]. In this case, the use of aluminum foil as a collector of SIBs can greatly reduce the initial price of the battery and its initial weight. In terms of large- scale energy storage, the stable discharge performance of SIBs makes it easy to manage the depth of discharge [7]. The production of SIBs can follow the existing production processes and equipment associated with LIBs [8]. Based on the above-recognized advantages, SIBs have maintained high research interest in recent years. There have been many reports on electrode and electrolyte material systems of SIBs. So far, the energy density of SIBs can exceed 100 W h/kg [9]. Moreover, the cost of electricity can reach less than 0.1/USD (W h) using SIBs [10]. Research Center of Green Catalysis, College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Road, Zhengzhou 450001, China Institute of Materials Science & Devices, School of Material Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215000, China Citation: Li, P.; Hu, N.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Deng, W. Recent Progress and Perspective: Na Ion Batteries Used at Low Temperatures. Nanomaterials2022,12,3529. https:// doi.org/10.3390/nano12193529 Academic Editor: Diego Cazorla-Amorós Received: 8 September 2022 Accepted: 3 October 2022 Published: 9 October 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 3529. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193529 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/nanomaterials

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