Lithium from Electrode Materials Li-Ion Battery Brine Seawater

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Lithium from Electrode Materials Li-Ion Battery Brine Seawater ( lithium-from-electrode-materials-li-ion-battery-brine-seawat )

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processes Review Recent Advances in Lithium Extraction Using Electrode Materials of Li-Ion Battery from Brine/Seawater Jianpeng Sun 1 , Dongdong Liang 2, Xiangchao Meng 1 and Zizhen Li 1,* 1 Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China Qingdao Zhongshida New Energy Technology Co., Qingdao 266100, China Citation: Sun, J.; Liang, D.; Meng, X.; Li, Z. Recent Advances in Lithium Extraction Using Electrode Materials of Li-Ion Battery from Brine/Seawater. Processes2022,10,2654. https:// doi.org/10.3390/pr10122654 Academic Editor: Maria Jose Martin de Vidales Received: 18 November 2022 Accepted: 7 December 2022 Published: 9 December 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Abstract: With the rapid development of industry, the demand for lithium resources is increasing. Traditional methods such as precipitation usually take 1–2 years, and depend on weather conditions. In addition, electrochemical lithium recovery (ELR) as a green chemical method has attracted a great deal of attention. Herein, we summarize the systems of electrochemical lithium extraction and the electrode materials of the Li-ion battery from brine/seawater. Some representative work on electrochemical lithium extraction is then introduced. Finally, we prospect the future opportunities and challenges of electrochemical lithium extraction. In all, this review explores electrochemical lithium extraction from brine/seawater in depth, with special attention to the systems and elec- trode of electrochemical lithium extraction, which could provide a useful guidance for reasonable electrochemical-lithium-extraction. Keywords: lithium; electrochemical; mechanism; systems; electrode materials 1. Introduction Rapid industrial growth and the increasing demand for raw materials require accel- erated mineral exploration and mining to meet production needs [1–7]. Among some valuable minerals, lithium, one of important elements with economic value, has the lightest metal density (0.53 g/cm3) and the most negative redox-potential (−3.04 V), which is widely used in battery technologies for portable electronic devices, new energy vehicles and power storage [8–10]. Recently, along with the development of electric vehicles, a large number of lithium-ion batteries are being used to power electric vehicles, and the consumption of lithium for battery production is increasing, accounting for 65% of the lithium-ion end market in Figure 1 [11,12]. Correspondingly, it is particularly important to find a suitable method to extract lithium. At present, lithium is mainly derived from hard-rock sources and lithium-containing solution including brines, seawater and waste lithium electrolyte. The process of lithium extraction from hard-rock sources has a high energy consumption, high cost and causes serious pollution. In addition, the content of lithium in brine/seawater is very rich, accounting for approximately 80% of the total known reserves [13,14]. Moreover, as an important potential source of lithium, the total inventory of lithium in the world’s oceans is approximately 230 billion tons, so that seawater also has received a lot of attention [15,16]. Therefore, the development of an economic and environmental-protection method for lithium recovery from brine/seawater will be a trend for lithium recovery in the future. Currently, many methods such as precipitation [17–19], adsorption [20–23], extrac- tion [24], ion exchange [25,26] and electrodialysis [27–29] are reported for lithium recovery from brine/seawater. Among them, precipitation is a mature and reliable method, and the first method used in industry for lithium extraction from salt lakes. However, it re- quires a pre-concentration process, which takes a long time to complete, and is subject to weather, while the addition of lime to separate lithium and magnesium increases the cost 2 * Correspondence: lizizhen@ouc.edu.cn Processes 2022, 10, 2654. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122654 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/processes

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