Hydrogen Generation Using Low Temperature Electrolysis

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Hydrogen Generation Using Low Temperature Electrolysis ( hydrogen-generation-using-low-temperature-electrolysis )

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energies Review Main Trends and Research Directions in Hydrogen Generation Using Low Temperature Electrolysis: A Systematic Literature Review Cristina Hora , Florin Ciprian Dan * , Nicolae Rancov, Gabriela Elena Badea and Calin Secui Faculty of Energy Engineering and Industrial Management (ROMANIA), University of Oradea, Strada Universităt, ii 1, 410087 Oradea, Romania * Correspondence: florin.dan@uoradea.ro; Tel.: +40-7-4263-3462 Abstract: Hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant element in the universe and it is also a neutral energy carrier, meaning the environmental effects of using it are strictly related to the effects of creating the means of producing of that amount of Hydrogen. So far, the H2 generation by water electrolysis research field did not manage to break the efficiency barrier in order to consider H2 production as a technology that sustains financially its self-development. However, given the complexity of this technology and the overall environmental impacts, an up-to-date research and development status review is critical. Thus, this study aims to identify the main trends, achievements and research directions of the H2 generation using pure and alkaline water electrolysis, providing a review of the state of the art in the specific literature. Methods: In order to deliver this, a Systematic Literature Review was carried out, using PRISMA methodology, highlighting the research trends and results in peer review publish articles over more than two years (2020–2022). Findings: This review identifies niches and actual status of the H2 generation by water and alkaline water electrolysis and points out, in numbers, the boundaries of the 2020–2022 timeline research. Keywords: hydrogen generation; hydrogen production; hydrogen electrolysis; PEM; AEM; exchange membrane; alkaline water electrolysis; Systematic Literature Review 1. Introduction Taking into consideration the environmental impact of fossil fuel usage in regard to the climate change amplified by the international context (e.g., Ukraine 2022 war and its impacts on the energy market) a new star of the energy market emerged under the form of a clean energy carrier, H2. Hydrogen production by its primary energy source is split into fossil fuel and renewable sources. In the context of worldwide agreement on decarbonization the use of renewable energy is the preferred option. Renewable energy sources have the downfall of being unreliable from stability and constant point of view. Hence Hydrogen generation can benefit from the renewable overproduction or renewable output with a low cost. In the same way electricity is produced from other sources, the H2 is produced from different energy sources, but, for now, lacks the infrastructure to be used and deployed. Compared to electricity, the storage of H2 is simpler, cheaper and easy to cache under the form of a tank. Being the most abundant element in the universe, having the biggest energy per weight (out of common fuels, three times higher than gasoline) and the only conversion byproduct being water, makes this energy carrier the target of energy policies by funding and subsequent research. The commonly accepted yield of converting power to H2 to power again has the best round trip conversion efficiency of 46% [1]; therefore, we agree that we must follow closely the steps research takes in this direction. Following reviews conducted in 2018 [2] and 2019 [3], we are showing the results over the 2020–2022 period of published research. Citation: Hora, C.; Dan, F.C.; Rancov, N.; Badea, G.E.; Secui, C. Main Trends and Research Directions in Hydrogen Generation Using Low Temperature Electrolysis: A Systematic Literature Review. Energies 2022, 15, 6076. https://doi.org/10.3390/ en15166076 Academic Editors: Attilio Converti and Vladislav A. Sadykov Received: 18 July 2022 Accepted: 18 August 2022 Published: 22 August 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Energies 2022, 15, 6076. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15166076 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/energies

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