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Electrochemistry ( electrochemistry )

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Chapter 18: Electrochemistry Key topics: Galvanic cells Nernst equation Batteries; electrolysis Balancing Redox Reactions A redox reaction involves a transfer of electrons from one species to another. This results in a change in oxidation number. Oxidation (reducing agent): loss of electrons Reduction (oxidizing agent): gain of electrons these reactions must occur together example: thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate 2 K Cl O3 (s) ⌦ 2 K Cl (s) + 3 O2 (g) |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} +1 +5 2⇥3 +1 1 0⇥2 example: combustion of methane C H4(g)+2O2(g)⌦C O2(g)+2H2 O(l) |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} 4 +1⇥4 0⇥2 +4 2⇥2 +1⇥2 2 Balancing Simple Redox Reactions In a redox reaction both the mass and the charge must be balanced example: (net ionic equation) Al(s) + Ni2+(aq) → Al3+(aq) + Ni(s) balanced by mass, but not by charge

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