Aluminum Electrode with High Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries

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Aluminum Electrode with High Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries ( aluminum-electrode-with-high-capacity-lithium-ion-batteries )

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batteries Article A Stable Porous Aluminum Electrode with High Capacity for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng Chen 1 and Michael Ruck 1,2,* 1 2 Abstract: A binder-free aluminum (Al) electrode was fabricated by electrodeposition on a three- dimensional copper foam (3DCu) or carbon fabric (3DCF) from a mixed-halide ionic liquid. The strong adhesion, structural stability and interface compatibility between Al and 3DCu facilitate high electrical conductivity and effectively alleviate large volume change. In a lithium-ion battery, the continuous, dendrite-free Al/3DCu electrode enables stable and reversible reactions, which delivered a first discharge capacity of 981 mAh g−1 in a coin cell at 21 mA g−1. It operates stably for at least 12 cycles with a discharge depth of about 1 mAh per cycle (7 h each) at the rate of 21 mA g−1. The cycled Al/3DCu electrode maintains good interfacial stability and shows no shedding. In contrast to many nanostructured electrodes, the amount of Al can reach 30% of a solid Al electrode with an average conversion to Li0.71Al. The concept of porous 3D electrodes provides a good compromise between diffusion kinetics and the total amount of active metal available in a battery with alloying- type anodes and appears promising for application. Keywords: alloying-type electrodes; aluminum; electrodeposition; electrodes; ionic liquids; lithium-ion batteries 1. Introduction It is essential to develop lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy density, lower cost and better safety [1]. One of the issues is that the capacity of intercalated carbon electrodes currently used in LIBs is limited to 372 mAh g−1 [2]. The growing demand for lighter, cheaper, and safer LIBs with higher energy density that can power electric vehicles and portable electronics has stimulated researchers to develop new electrodes materials [3]. Many metals and metal oxides have been investigated for the next generation of high-capacity electrodes materials [4]. The element aluminum (Al), as the third most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, has received increasing attention in the development of rechargeable LIBs in recent years due to its low price and stable electrochemical performance [5]. However, in the metal– lithium alloying process or in the oxide–lithium conversion, a strong volume expansion of 100% and more [6] leads to the pulverization of the electrode materials, resulting in a rapid decrease in capacity [2,7]. In addition, these powdered metals and metal oxides must be mixed with conductive additives, binders and solvents before they can be attached to the collector [2]. This traditional multi-step mixing–pasting–pressing–baking process is not only complicated and costly but also limits electrical conductivity because there is little direct contact between the metal or metal oxide particles with each other and especially with the collector [2]. The electrolytic deposition of micro- or nanostructures of active materials on collectors with large specific surface area is a very effective method to solve the above problems. The voids in the collector can buffer the volume expansion of the Al, and the direct contact between the active Al material and the collector greatly increases the conduction of electrons. Faculty of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden, Germany * Correspondence: michael.ruck@tu-dresden.de Citation: Chen, P.; Ruck, M. A Stable Porous Aluminum Electrode with High Capacity for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Batteries 2023, 9,37. https://doi.org/10.3390/ batteries9010037 Academic Editor: Md Roknuzzaman Received: 8 November 2022 Revised: 22 December 2022 Accepted: 30 December 2022 Published: 4 January 2023 Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Batteries 2023, 9, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010037 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/batteries

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