Advancing Non-Aqueous Redox-Flow Batteries

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Advancing Non-Aqueous Redox-Flow Batteries ( advancing-non-aqueous-redox-flow-batteries )

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batteries Review Building Bridges: Unifying Design and Development Aspects for Advancing Non-Aqueous Redox-Flow Batteries Luuk Kortekaas 1,*, Sebastian Fricke 1 , Aleksandr Korshunov 2, Isidora Cekic-Laskovic 1, Martin Winter 1,2,* and Mariano Grünebaum 1,* 1 Helmholtz Institute Münster, IEK-12, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Corrensstrasse 46, 48149 Münster, Germany MEET Battery Research Center, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 46, 48149 Münster, Germany 2 * Correspondence: l.kortekaas@rug.nl (L.K.); m.winter@fz-juelich.de (M.W.); m.gruenebaum@fz-juelich.de (M.G.) Citation: Kortekaas, L.; Fricke, S.; Korshunov, A.; Cekic-Laskovic, I.; Winter, M.; Grünebaum, M. Building Bridges: Unifying Design and Development Aspects for Advancing Non-Aqueous Redox-Flow Batteries. Batteries2023,9,4. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/batteries9010004 Academic Editors: Maochun Wu and Haoran Jiang Received: 7 October 2022 Revised: 8 December 2022 Accepted: 16 December 2022 Published: 22 December 2022 Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Abstract: Renewable energy sources have been a topic of ever-increasing interest, not least due to escalating environmental changes. The significant rise of research into energy harvesting and storage over the years has yielded a plethora of approaches and methodologies, and associated reviews of individual aspects thereof. Here, we aim at highlighting a rather new avenue within the field of batteries, the (noaqueous) all-organic redox-flow battery, albeit seeking to provide a comprehensive and wide-ranging overview of the subject matter that covers all associated aspects. This way, subject matter on a historical perspective, general types of redox-flow cells, electrolyte design and function, flow kinetics, and cell design are housed within one work, providing perspective on the all-organic redox-flow battery in a broader sense. Keywords: redox-flow batteries; electrolyte design; cell design; redox-flow cell operating 1. Introduction Humankind has experienced many boosts in quality of life over the course of its existence, paired with unprecedented technological advances. Arguably, the harnessing of energy has been pivotal to our growth, as is the ability to collect and store energy for on-demand use [1,2]. Although the dominant source of energy over the past century has originated from fossil fuels, a switch towards renewable energy sources is imminent [3]. As the collection of solar, wind, and hydroelectric energy is well-developed, the bottleneck for now lies in the storage thereof, as the demand is often not synchronized with the energy production. Redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer a scalable technological and economical solution to the intrinsic intermittency of renewable energy sources [4–7]. The unique feature of this technology is that energy storage and energy conversion are decoupled, in effect requiring a scale-up of the electrolyte volume only in order to increase the energy storage capacity [8]. This promising application was first conceptualized in the early 1970s when the first prototype from NASA was built and patented [9], though early hints of modern flow batteries were observed in 1949 when Kangro identified liquid redox electrolytes for possible energy storage [10]. A concept introduced in 1986 [11] and the related patent registered for all-vanadium redox-flow batteries in 1988 [12] by Skyllas-Kazacos were, arguably, a clear indication of its true potential. The scrupulous development of vanadium redox systems jump-started modern RFB technology [13–16], which is nowadays in full pursuit of viable alternatives with fast responsiveness, a high output energy density, low costs, and a long lifetime [17]. Despite the ubiquity of vanadium redox systems, the electrochemical core of the technology remains modular, and therefore, the possibility of other redox chemistries commercially replacing them is looming [18]. The challenges in replacing vanadium can be divided into those physical (e.g., hydrostatics, compressed air, and high-speed flywheels) or chemical in nature (e.g., electrical double layers, solution/membrane resistance, and electron transfer Batteries 2023, 9, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010004 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/batteries

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