Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Essential Oil from Turmeric

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Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Essential Oil from Turmeric ( supercritical-co2-extraction-essential-oil-from-turmeric )

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International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-8 Issue-8 June, 2019 Experimental Investigation on efficient Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Essential Oil from Turmeric Rhizomes: Effects of Geometric and other Operation Parameters Sutapa Roy, Chandan Guha, Asit Kumar Saha, Somak Jyoti Sahu  Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction experiments were carried out to isolate essential oil from turmeric rhizomes efficiently using extractors of annulus bed geometry and conventional cylindrical geometry using the same operating conditions of pressure 24.5 MPa, temperature 500C and particle size 0.3 mm keeping the time of extraction constant. A faster rate of extraction and improved yield was obtained in annulus bed geometry than conventional cylindrical geometry. The effect of pressure, temperature and particle size within the range of 21.6 MPa to 27.5 MPa, 400C to 600C and 0.3 mm to 0.9 mm respectively in annulus bed geometry were studied using response surface methodology. Full face central composite design method of statistical analysis was applied to find the interactions of all these parameters on oil yields and the optimum conditions. It was found that optimum oil yields of 4.454 gm oil/100 gm turmeric powder were obtained at a temperature of 59.960C and a pressure of 27.097 MPa for an average particle size of 0.3 mm. Model equations predicting the oil yields with operating parameters were also proposed. Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, turmeric oil, extractor bed performance, oil yield, central composite design. I. INTRODUCTION Turmeric rhizomes are finger-like underground storage organs obtained from a perennial, tuberous herb (Curcuma longa L.) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family [1]. Its uses in traditional Chinese medicine and ayurvedic medicine of India were reported as more than thousands of years older [2]. Among different warmer parts of the world where turmeric is cultivated extensively, India is one of the largest producers of commercial turmeric products like turmeric powder, essential oil, oleoresin, etc. [3] and exporter as well [4]. The dark yellow powder product processed from dried matured rhizomes is used as a daily spice by almost one billion populations over the world for its natural color pigments, flavor, aroma, and food preservation characteristics [5]. There are several amazing benefits of daily use of raw Revised Manuscript Received on June 05, 2019 Sutapa Roy, Department of Chemical Engineering, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, West Bengal, India Chandan Guha, Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India Asit Kumar Saha, Department of Chemical Engineering, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, West Bengal, India Somak Jyoti Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, West Bengal, India Retrieval Number: H6344068819/19©BEIESP turmeric rhizomes. Major industries who consume turmeric in many ways include foods, pharmaceuticals, confectionery, cosmetics and textiles [4, 6]. This golden spice plant extracts may contain more than 200 bioactive components [7]. These active ingredients of turmeric consist of mainly essential oil (volatile aromatic fractions) and nonvolatile saffron color polyphenol curcumin (probably the strongest antioxidant of turmeric) [5]. The volatile oil of Curcuma from Indian origin was reported to contain mainly four different sesquiterpenes (ar-turmerone, α-turmerone, turmerol, and β-turmerone) [8]. The benefits of these secondary metabolites were enlisted as having anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, antiviral, insect repellant, anticoagulant, ant diabetic, antiprotozoal, antivenom, antiulcer, antifibrotic, antifertility, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic properties [9, 6]. The extracts from various parts of C. longa are possible to recover by various extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction [10-11], steam distillation [12] , hydro-distillation [1, 8], microwave-assisted extraction [13] and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) [14-16, 6]. Among them, two mostly used laboratory and industrial grade traditional methods, hydro-distillation, and steam distillation, are suffering from producing good quality yields [16]. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCO2E) is a robust technology to produce good quality yield with abundant bioactive components [15], provide oxygen-free extraction environment, minimize extraction time and solvent consumption, reduce secondary treatment steps, and diminish solvent contamination of the product to zero levels [14]. Various research works were reported to study the effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, particle size, solvent flow rate, the addition of co-solvent, and material drying conditions on the extraction of turmeric oil from different plant parts using SFE. Gopalan, Priyanka, and their co-workers recommended a pressure range from 20MPa to 40MPa and temperature range from 313K to 333K for SCO2E of turmeric rhizomes to obtain good quantity oil yield [14, 6]. Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering 323 & Sciences Publication

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