Rapid and Efficient Extraction of Curcumins SCO2

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Rapid and Efficient Extraction of Curcumins SCO2 ( rapid-and-efficient-extraction-curcumins-sco2 )

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Notes Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2014, Vol. 35, No. 10 3107 http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2014.35.10.3107 Rapid and Efficient Extraction of Curcumins from Curry Powder Using Supercritical CO2 Dongjin Pyo* and Eojin Kim Department of Chemistry, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, Korea. *E-mail: pyod@kangwon.ac.kr Received March 20, 2014, Accepted June 16, 2014 Key Words : Supercritical fluid extraction, Curry, Curcumin, Carbon dioxide A dried curry powder is well known food additive in many Asian countries. Curcumins are main coloring substances and active compounds in curry powder which is the natural yellow pigment in turmeric isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. Curcumins are consisted of curcumin ([(1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6- diene-3,5-dione) and two related compounds, demethoxy- curcumin (DMC) and bis demethoxycurcumin (BDMC). The chemical structure of curcumin is shown in Figure 1. Curcumins gives specific flavor and yellow color to curry powder.1 Curcumins was found to inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species including superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide in peritoneal macrophages.2 Curcumins also inhibits lipo-polysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced production of nitric oxide in macrophages3 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages.4 Curcumins have also been reported to exhibit anti-clastogenic,5 anti-fungal6 and anti- viral properties.7 For the extraction of useful organic compounds from natural products, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been currently used. Since the solubilities8 of curcumins in supercritical CO2 and ethanol modified supercritical CO2 are fairly high (6.51% wt/wt in supercritical CO2 , 22.58% wt/wt in ethanol modified supercritical CO2 at 30 Mpa, 318 K), supercritical fluid extraction can be one of the most effective extraction method for the extraction of curcumins. Until recently little information has been available in the literature regarding selective extraction of curcumins from curry powder, although essential oils including curcumins have been extracted using supercritical fluid.8,9 In this paper, a new method has been developed to extract curcumins selectively from curry powder. This new method showed much higher extraction efficiency than the method described in recent Korean Patent.10 Extraction with supercritical fluids as solvents have received wide attention recently. A number of potential advantages including rapid extraction time, minimized sample handling steps, more efficient extraction, increased selec- tivity are possible with supercritical fluid extraction. These advantages of SFE accrue from the properties of a solvent at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. At elevated pressure, this single phase will have properties that are intermediate between those of the gas and the liquid phases and are dependent on the fluid composition, pressure, and temperature. The compressibility of supercritical fluids is large just above the critical temperature, and small change in pressure result in large changes in the density of the fluid.10 The density of a supercritical fluid is typically 102- 103 times that of gas. Consequently, molecular interactions increase due to shorter intermolecular distances. However, the diffusion coefficients and viscosity of the fluid, although density dependent, remain more like that of a gas. The “liquidlike” behavior of a supercritical fluid results in en- hanced solubilizing capabilities for the less polar compounds. These properties allow similar solvent strengths to liquids but with greatly improved mass-transfer properties which provide the potential for more rapid extraction rates and more efficient extraction due to better penetration of the matrix. Among a wide variety of supercritical fluids, CO2 has been the most commonly employed due to its comparatively low critical temperature (31.1 oC) and pressure (78.3 atm) together with its another advantages such as environmental acceptance and non toxicity to human health.11 As examples of supercritical fluid extraction, Sugiyama et al.12 was successfully performed to extract caffeine from the green beans and Schneiderman et al.13 was successfully performed to extract menadione (vitamin K3) from animal food. The advantages of supercritical fluid extraction of cur- cumin from curry powder compared conventional liquid extraction are the followings; (a) more selective extraction is possible (b) it is less expensive in terms of solvent cost and laboratory time, (c) carbon dioxide is available, to be used as a pure solvent, with its convenient critical temperature, its non-toxicity. Experimental Materials and Reagents. Dried and powdered curry powder was purchased from E-mart (Chunchon, Korea) and Figure 1. Chemical structure of curcumin.

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