Growth-Inhibitory Effect of Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Encapsulating Curcumin

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Growth-Inhibitory Effect of Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Encapsulating Curcumin ( growth-inhibitory-effect-chitosan-coated-liposomes-encapsula )

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marine drugs Article Growth-Inhibitory Effect of Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Encapsulating Curcumin on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mahmoud Hasan 1, Kamil Elkhoury 1 , Nabila Belhaj 1, Cyril Kahn 1, Ali Tamayol 2, Muriel Barberi-Heyob 3, Elmira Arab-Tehrany 1,*,† and Michel Linder 1,*,† 1 2 3 Tel.: +33-3-72-74-41-05 (E.A.-T. & M.L.) † Both authors contributed equal to this work. Received: 17 March 2020; Accepted: 13 April 2020; Published: 17 April 2020 LIBio, Université de Lorraine, F-54000 Nancy, France; mahmoud.hasan@univ-lorraine.fr (M.H.); kamil.elkhoury@univ-lorraine.fr (K.E.); nabila_Belhaj@cargill.com (N.B.); cyril.kahn@univ-lorraine.fr (C.K.) Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA; atamayol@uchc.edu CRAN, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, F-54000 Nancy, France; muriel.barberi@univ-lorraine.fr * Correspondence: elmira.arab-tehrany@univ-lorraine.fr (E.A.-T.); michel.linder@univ-lorraine.fr (M.L.); Abstract: Current anticancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy and initiate severe side effects. As such, identifying bioactive anticancer agents that can surpass these limitations is a necessity. One such agent, curcumin, is a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric, and has been widely investigated for its potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects over the last 40 years. However, the poor bioavailability of curcumin, caused by its low absorption, limits its clinical use. In order to solve this issue, in this study, curcumin was encapsulated in chitosan-coated nanoliposomes derived from three natural lecithin sources. Liposomal formulations were all in the nanometric scale (around 120 nm) and negatively charged (around −40 mV). Among the three lecithins, salmon lecithin presented the highest growth-inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells (two times lower growth than the control group for 12 μM of curcumin and four times lower for 20 μM of curcumin). The soya and rapeseed lecithins showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect on the tumor cells. Moreover, coating nanoliposomes with chitosan enabled a higher loading efficiency of curcumin (88% for coated liposomes compared to 65% for the non-coated liposomes) and a stronger growth-inhibitory effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Keywords: breast cancer; MCF-7; liposomes; encapsulation; chitosan; curcumin 1. Introduction Curcumin is a yellow natural polyphenolic compound extracted from turmeric root (Curcuma longa). Curcumin has been widely used in traditional medicine due to its pharmacological effects such as its antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities [1,2]. The anticancer properties of curcumin are owed to its ability to target multiple cellular and molecular cancer pathways, such as the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), tumor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the microRNAs (miRNAs) network [3]. Recent studies have indicated that the anticancer properties of curcumin could be exerted via targeting various miRNAs, such as the upregulation of miR-7, miR-9, miR-21 and miR-181a, and the downregulation of miR34a and miR-200c [3–5]. However, the poor oral bioavailability of curcumin limits its therapeutic efficacity [6,7]. In fact, its poor solubility in an aqueous medium and weak stability in alkaline pH conditions or gastrointestinal fluids restrict its availability to cross into the blood circulation by oral administration. To overcome such 􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰂􏰅 􏰇􏰈􏰉 􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰍􏰎􏰄􏰏 Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 217; doi:10.3390/md18040217 www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs

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