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Text from PDF Page: 001E3S Web of Conferences 125, 19001 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201912519001 ICENIS 2019 The Effect of Operating Conditions on Curcumin Extracted from Turmeric by Hydrothermal Extraction Mohamad Endy Yulianto1, Rizka Amalia1,*, Vita Paramita1, Indah Hartati2, Nissa Ayu Maulinda3, and Muhammad Aziz Shulthoni4 1Industrial Chemical Engineering, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Semarang-Indonesia 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Wahid Hasyim University, Semarang Indonesia 3Student of Diploma III Chemical Engineering, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Semarang-Indonesia 4Student of Industrial Chemical Engineering, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Semarang-Indonesia Abstract. Turmeric has a bioactive compound namely curcuminoid. It has many pharmacology effects such as anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifertility, anti- venom, anti-coagulant, anti-HIV hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and anticoagulant properties. To increase the economic value of turmeric, it is necessary to develop a hydrothermal extraction process of turmeric’s active compound. The advantages of hydrothermal extraction were inexpensive, abundant availability, high purity, non-toxic, and easy to handle. This research aims to study the effect of operating conditions : temperature (130-150oC), time (10-40 minutes) and solid:liquid ratio (1:10 and 1:12) on the bioactive compounds of turmeric extracted from hydrothermal extraction process. Generally, high extraction yield was obtained at higher extraction temperature (140 and 150oC). Under these conditions, with a lower solid : liquid ratio (1:10), high concentration of curcumin is produced. Further, a higher solid : liquid ratio will likely produce the opposite result, except when it operates at low extraction temperature. The high temperature of the pressurized liquid water can reduce the viscosity and surface tension of water so it will increase the diffusion rates and absorption. The higher the solid:liquid ratio, the greater the different concentration between interior and exterior cell, which promote the high efficiency of diffusion process. Keywords: extraction; hydrothermal; turmeric; temperature; solid:liquid 1 Introduction Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val) has many pharmacology effects such as anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifertility, anti-venom, anti-coagulant, anti-HIV hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and anticoagulant properties[1-4]. The main bioactive component of turmeric which shows the pharmacological properties mentioned above is curcuminoid[1-4]. Curcumonoid consists of 94% curcumin, 6% monodexmethoxycurcumin and 1% bisdesmethoxycurcumin [4-5]. Increasing the added value of commodities can be done through diversification of turmeric into a secondary product (simplicia, extract). The development of "active compound extracts" production process is an effort that will have high competitiveness which can play an important role in increasing the nation's independence towards drug raw material fulfillment. It also increases the product’s prices up to 80.8 times higher than the crops . The development of downstream industries in the production of the active compound extract from turmeric and its pharmacological effects was potential for increasing its economic value. There are numerous methods that have been applied in the production of active * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org turmeric extract, including: (i) soxhletation, (ii) percolation, (iii) supercritical fluid extraction, (iv) microwave extraction, and (v) uterine extraction. The extraction process is carried out using various solvents such as ethanol, methanol, acetone, dichloromethane, hexane, CO2 and water [7-10]. Extraction by soxhletation, percolation, microwave and ultrasonic methods were done effectively using solvents such as ethanol, methanol, aceton, dichloromethane, and hexane. However, it leaves solvent residues that are toxic, cannot be recycled, and difficult to be handling [10-13]. While supercritical extraction with CO2 and water is very selective and does not leave harmful residual solvent residues. However, the process requires a high cost to supply fluids in supercritical conditions and requires special handling and an expensive price (CO2) [10,14]. The alternative extraction process which is considered appropriate for the extraction process have some criteria of solvent: nontoxic, cheap, easy to obtain, abundant availability, high purity, can be recycled, easy to handle, has the polarity approaches with alcohol polarity and low viscosity and surface tension. Extraction using a green solvent in subcritical conditions meets the criteria above. The using of water as a green solvent for extraction in subcritical areas will be effective if it keeps at high © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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